Monday, October 1, 2012

Lesson 18 - the Gregorian Reform and the Investiture Struggle



THE GREGORIAN REFORM AND THE INVESTITURE STRUGGLE


GOALS OF THE GREGORIAN REFORM
a.   Reaffirmation of the Papal Primacy
b.   Reform of the Clergy
c.   Freedom of the Church from Lay Ascendancy


LIBERTAS ECCLESIA
-       Both the Cluniac Reform and the Gregorian Reform started with the concept of Libertas Ecclesiae (Freedom of the Church)
-       It is the concept of emancipation of the Church from temporal power.
-       Libertas (in medieval Germanic world) = what the individual could positively do or omit (leave undone). Therefore, it pertains to the rights and obligations
-       Libertates (or liberties) = sum total of rights and obligations which the individual could claim for himself on the basis of law or special privilege. If these rights were violated, the individual must fight for their restoration.
-       In the 10th century, the monasteries felt that their rights were violated with the interference of the powerful state appointed bishops and the Emperor and his empire itself. So they fought for the restoration of their rights. This is the Cluniac Reform of the 10th century.
-       In the 11th until the 12th centuries, the Universal church felt that their rights were violated by State intervention in the church. So the Church also fought for the restoration of her rights. This is the Gregorian Reform of the 11th – 12th centuries. It demanded restoration of the free ecclesiastical right of election to safeguard religious and ecclesiastical independence. It demanded that the Church be permitted the unhindered exercise of its positive rights.


-       The major difference between the two reform movements is that the Cluniac reform was purely a monastic reform while the Gregorian Reform was a political reform.
-       We can say that the Church political reform developed out of monastic reform.
-       The Cluniac Reform had only striven for the liberty and the independence of the Church within the State, but the Gregorian reformers argued that the church is superior to the state just as the mind is superior to the body.
-       Gregory VII, who has been made the patron of this movement, was neither its initiator nor its final consummator. Yet the importance of his reign, the measures taken by this Pope and implemented by his legates under his impetus, and the prestige that he was able to restore to the Papacy justify in a large measure the application of the adjective Gregorian to the reforming movement.


HISTORICAL POINTS OF THE GREGORIAN REFORM
-       The German Emperors Holy Roman Emperors themselves brought the new spirit of reform to Rome when Henry III put into office popes who instituted the Papal reform[1].
a.     Leo IX (1049-1054) – defended the universality and primacy of the Papacy.
b.     Nicholas II (1058-1061) – decreed in 1059 the removal of the papal election from the influence of laymen [(esp. Henry IV (1056-1106)] and transferred it to the cardinal-bishops (1st time to be mentioned).

The term "cardinal" at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church, or specifically to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin cardo (hinge), meaning "principal" or "chief".

A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or collectively to the pope if he requests their counsel. Most cardinals have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or running a department of the Roman Curia.

In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees.

The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the vicinity of Rome, whose (titular) bishops form the highest-ranking order of Cardinals, the Cardinal Bishops.
The suburbicarian dioceses have varied slightly over time and nowadays consist of:
the Diocese of Ostia (since 1150 the see of the Dean of the College of Cardinals)
the Diocese of Velletri-Segni
the Diocese of Porto and Santa-Rufina
the Bishop of Frascati (Tusculum)
the Diocese of Palestrina
the Diocese of Albano
the Diocese of Sabina


While all clergy wear some variation of the basic cossack, each rank has its own color:

Cardinals wear crimson red, a tradition started when Pope Innocent IV gave the cardinals their distinctive hats in 1245. The red symbolizes their devotion to the church, to the point of spilling blood.
 
The Pope originally wore the same red as the cardinals, but Pope Pius V donned a white cossack in the mid 1500s, carrying over the color from his Dominican priesthood. Future popes continued the practice, although the cape (mozetta) and skull cap (camauro) are still red.

No one is quite sure why bishops wear purple. There are two prominent theories:
 
Purple represents penitence, which is also why priests wear purple during Lent.

The color has long been associated with royalty because the dye was very expensive to produce. By wearing purple the bishop shows his high place in the church.

In either case, there isn't a set shade worn by bishops. Most wear amaranth red, while bishops in the UK and North America wear a bluer purple.

Priests wear black because they are "dead to the world." By joining the priesthood they leave the concerns of secular life to concentrate on the spiritual.

These colors are traditional but not set in stone. The pope's red shoes are a good example of this: Most popes wear red shoes to symbolize the martyrdom of St. Peter, the first pope. John Paul II switched from red to brown shoes early on when he served in the office, saying that he felt the color was more humble. He actively encouraged the cardinals to switch from brown to red shoes, and ended the use of buckles. His successor Benedict XVI currently wears the traditional red shoes.
 
The decree was expanded several times and by year 1100, all cardinals (Cardinal-bishops, Cardinal-priests, and Cardinal-deacons) participated in the election.
-       In 1179, the 3rd Lateran Council  =  ⅔ majority were required to decide.
-       In 1274,  – Gregory X [2] introduced the conclave in which the electing cardinals were separated from outside contacts until the election had been completed. Hence, conclave comes from the Latin cum clave meaning “with key”. Furthermore, Cardinal comes from carlus meaning “hinge”.
-       In 1918, regulation on elections were codified in the Codex Iuris Canonici (CIC) (with few additions by Pius XII in 1945)

-       The Gregorian reform opposed to things lay investiture and simony:
a.  Lay investiture: bishoprics and abbeys were bestowed by kings, princes and noblemen
b. Simony:   buying or selling of spiritual things or even ecclesiastical position (CCC 2121), which goes with the lay investiture. Can you combine Spiritual power and money?

PHOTO: A medieval king investing a bishop with the symbols of office.


THE INVESTITURE STRUGGLE
-       The principal conflict began in 1075 between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 2 men that you should keep in mind:   GREGORY VII (1073-1085) and HENRY IV (1056-1106). Two opposing views that decided the conflict.

HENRY IV (1156-1106)
-       Henry IV is Rex et Sacerdos! He still embraced the view of a sacred, almost clerical kingship which had been fashioned by the Ottonian Imperial Theology. He is the head of both State and Church. 

GREGORY VII (1073-1085)
-       As a young deacon Hildebrand, in 1046 he became a Cluniac monk.
-       In 1050, Leo IX recalled him to Rome and became active in the reform.
-       After the death of Cardinal Humbert (+1061), he assumed the leadership of the reform at the Papal court
-       Main points of his reform program:
a.     Marriage of Priests
b.     Simony
c.     Chiefly Lay Investiture:   The king is just a layman and subordinate to the Church and he is obliged to obey.


REPERCUSSION OF THE CHURCH’S STRUGGLE AGAINST LAY INVESTITURE
The emperor and king is Rex et Sacerdos. Whenever Otto put the imperial crown on his head he fasted the day before. The emperors are not just simply civil rulers but the servants of God. They regard themselves as Vicarius Christi. Furthermore, bishoprics and abbeys were bestowed by kings, princes and noblemen. Therefore, if the Gregorian Reform asserts that the king is just a layman and subordinate to the Church and he is obliged to obey, it means the removal of the sacred element from kingship.


DICTATUS PAPAE (1075)  
-       Translated as dictates/decision of the Pope.
-       Dictatus papae is a compilation of 27 axiomatic statements of powers arrogated to the Pope that was included in Pope Gregory VII's register under the year 1075
-       Gregory VII (1073-1085) formulated his tenets in the 27 guiding principles of his Dictatus Papae (1075)

The Dictates of the Pope
1.                      That the Roman Church was founded by God alone.
2.                      That the Roman pontiff alone can with right be called universal.
3.                      That he alone can depose or reinstate bishops.
4.                      That, in a council his legate, even if a lower grade, is above all bishops, and can pass sentence of deposition against them.
5.                      That the pope may depose the absent.
6.                      That, among other things, we ought not to remain in the same house with those excommunicated by him.
7.                      That for him alone is it lawful, according to the needs of the time, to make new laws, to assemble together new congregations, to make an abbey of a canonry; and, on the other hand, to divide a rich bishopric and unite the       poor ones.
8.                      That he alone may use the imperial insignia.
9.                      That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
10.                   That his name alone shall be spoken in the churches.
11.                   That this is the only name in the world.
12.                   That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
13.                   That he may be permitted to transfer bishops if need be.
14.                   That he has power to ordain a clerk of any church he may wish.
15.                   That he who is ordained by him may preside over another church, but may not hold a subordinate position; and that such a one may not receive a higher grade from any bishop.
16.                   That no synod shall be called a general one without his order.
17.                   That no chapter and no book shall be considered canonical without his authority.
18.                   That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one; and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it.
19.                   That he himself may be judged by no one.
20.                   That no one shall dare to condemn one who appeals to the apostolic chair.
21.                   That to the latter should be referred the more important cases of every church.
22.                   That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
23.                   That the Roman pontiff, if he have been canonically ordained, is undoubtedly made a saint by the merits of St.Peter; St. Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, bearing witness, and many holy fathers agreeing with him. As is contained in the decrees of St. Symmachus the pope.
24.                   That, by his command and consent, it may be lawful for subordinates to bring accusations.
25.                   That he may depose and reinstate bishops without assembling a synod.
26.                   That he who is not at peace with the Roman church shall not be considered catholic
27.                   That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.

-       The Pope is the Supreme head of Christianity
-       From the idea of the general supremacy of the spiritual over the physical, Gregory derived the supremacy of the Church over the State.
-       Relying on the Donation of Constantine[3], which he regarded as genuine, Gregory established the claim of papacy to world domination.
-       The Pope not only has the power to limit the rights of bishops but he also stands above kings and emperors whom he can depose if deemed necessary for religious and ethical reasons.


INVESTITURE STRUGGLE PROPER
The Investiture Struggle was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and12th centuries, a series of Popes challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures, of church officials such as bishops and abbots. Although the principal conflict began in 1075 betweenPope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, a brief but significant struggle over investiture also occurred between Henry I of England and the Pope Paschal II in the years 1103 to 1107, and the issue played a minor role in the struggles between church and state in France as well. The entire controversy was finally resolve by the Concordat of Worms (1122)

IMPERIAL STUBBORNNESS
-       Henry IV (1056-1106) defied the papal prohibition and used his royal rights of disposition in the Milan Episcopal election (1072).

LENTEN COUNCIL (1075)
-       Gregory VII (1073-1085) made the prohibition against lay investiture more severe and proclaimed:  it threatens the king with a ban that he would remove from him any privilege in connection with appointments to bishoprics.
-       Repercussion:   overturning of the Ottonian Imperial Church system on which the order of the empire rested.

SYNOD (DIET) OF WORMS (January 1076)
-       Henry IV (1056-1106) paid no attention to the papal decree of the Lenten Council of 1075
-       In the Synod of Worms in 1076, he incited the imperial bishops, who were concerned over Gregory’ revolutionary demands, against the pope, and Gregory VII was proclaimed deposed.

A synod historically is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.

The word synod comes from the Greek σύνοδος meaning "assembly" or "meeting", and it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium — "council".

A concordat is an agreement between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state on religious matters.


HENRY IV’S EXCOMMUNICATION
-       Gregory VII immediately excommunicated and released his subjects from their oath of fealty.
-       Repercussions:   
1.     It placed the king outside the Church community thereby changing the sacred character of the kingship.
2.     Henry’s followers melted away
3.     Prices gathered at Tribur (October 1076) presented the king with an ultimatum: Within a year he had to obtain the lifting of the ban or his throne would be forfeited and a new king chosen.

CANOSSA: IN THE FACE OF THE ULTIMATUM
-      In the winter of 1076-1077, Henry IV with his wife, child and small escort completed a perilous crossing of the Alps to Canossa à his journey of Penance.
-       Meanwhile, Gregory VII left Rome for Germany and he was in stronghold of Margravine Mathilda when Henry IV appeared in Canossa.
-      Dressed in a garb of a penitent from January 26-28, 1077, Henry waited for three days to be admitted by the Pope.
-    Through the intercession of Henry’s godfather, Hugh of Cluny (1049-1109) and Margravine Mathilda received papal absolution with the condition that he would accept papal arbitration in his quarrel with the German princes.
-       For a moment, Henry IV was victorious but Canossa was a heavy blow to the German kingship
-       Leadership of the west past from emperor to the Pope.

HENRY IV: AGAINST ALL ODDS (Anti-king à Civil War and 2nd excommunication à Anti-Pope)
-       In spite of Henry IV’s absolution, German princes elected Rudolf of Swabia (d.1080) as anti-king in March 1077. à Civil War in Germany
-       Henry IV’s relationship with the Pope worsened, he was excommunicated and deposed the second time (March 1080)
-       Henry IV then appointed Wibert of Ravenna [Clement III(1084-1100)] as anti-pope.
-       Henry IV advanced against Rome and Gregory fled to the Normans in Southern Italy and died in Salerno on March 26, 1085. Outwardly defeated but in reality the real victor.
-       Gregory said, “Amavi justitiam et odivi iniquitatem, proptere a morior in exilio” (I loved justice and hate iniquity because I die in exile)

The struggle between the church and state continued after Gregory viii’s death. The separation of the church and staate is impossible. <click> Victor III was the successor of Pope Gregory VII, yet his pontificate is far less impressive in history than his time. He died after over a year. Urban II succeeded.

BISHOPS WERE ALSO TEMPORAL RULERS (Very Important!)
-       There were > 100 bishops and archbishops who were vested with temporal power therefore, they were also civil rulers.
-       Henry V told Urban II that if you want freedom from selection of bishops by the emperor, the civil powers of the bishops and archbishops must be removed.
-       But the bishops did not accept the idea because for them they are serving both the Church and the State and it would mean the collapse of a system that functioned for hundreds of years.

THE CONCORDAT[4] OF SUTRI (February 1111):    REJECTED!
-       Terms of the Concordat: Paschal II (1099-1108) and Henry V (1106-1125) agreed that the German Imperial Church was to return to the king all fiefs and privileges which it had received from him and in return Henry V was to stop the practice of investiture which would be superfluous.
-       Vehement opposition of both German and princes and bishop and the suggestion was rejected.

THE CONCORDAT OF WORMS (1122): A COMPROMISE
-       Terms between Calixtus II and Henry V
-       Aka Pactum Calixtinum was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122
-       a solution to the investiture problem was attempted by providing a double investiture:
King à worldly/ civil investiture à conferral of fiefs and rights (fealty to the emperor)à (regalia and temporalities) à scepter
Pope à religious/ Episcopal/ spiritual investiture à removed from the emperor and returned to the Churchà ring and staff
-       The king was to respect the canonical right of election, which was to be reserved to the clerics and nobility of the Episcopal churches. After 13th century, election was reserved exclusively to the cathedral chapters.
-       Only after canonical election and spiritual investiture would the king confer the worldly investiture. (In Germany, Italy and Burgundy, did it before the Episcopal consecration.)
-       Real solution to the central problem of Church and State had not yet been accomplished. Feudal ties of Church and State continued to exist until the French Revolution and Great secularization. Therefore, points of contacts and friction kindle new controversy and struggle.

FREDERICK I BARBAROSA(1152-1190) vs. ALEXANDER III(1159-1181)
-     He renewed the struggle not anymore on the question of investiture which was resolved in the Concordat of Worms but they believed that they have universal powers.
-       Frederick would like to put into effect the idea of a universal empire and the struggle was renewed because it was opposed by Alexander III.
-       Diet of Besancon (1157) to Peace of Venice (1177)
-       It lasted for 20 years until Frederick’s ban was lifted which Alexander III imposed on 1160.

THE TWO-SWORD THEORY
-       Christ alone is the Lord of Christianity.
-       It was concluded that Christ appointed two powers to govern the world, symbolized by two swords (Luke 22:38) . : Then they said, “ Lord, look, there are two swords here.” But he replied, “It is enough!”
-       One of the swords, the secular one, rested in the hand of the emperor.
-       The second sword, the spiritual one, in the hand of the Pope.
-       Canonists, juridicists and Theologians interpreted this one-sidedly in favor of the pope.
-       The Church solely and exclusively owned the two-swords; the Church wielded the spiritual one, the ban, and loaned the secular one to the emperor who held it for and in the name of the Church. In the process Church became more powerful.

GREGORIANISM IN RETROSPECT
-       Even though Frederick Barbarossa revived the old concept of the empire and defended himself against papal domination, the powerful Innocent the III (1198-1216) did succeed in erecting papal world domination on the basis of papal liege states. Although Staufic house lost the battle, not long after the collapse of the house of Staufen the universal papacy declined.
-       Gregorianism was not of benefit to the Church in its spiritual task in retrospect.

REINFORCEMENTS OF THE GREGORIAN REFORM
1.     Primacy of the Pope within the Church and Church regained too much power.
2.     Reform Synods were held in Rome and elsewhere.
3.  Extension of Legate System for implementation of reform and establishment of Papal authority comes into importance so that the papacy has importance.
4.   Appellation to the Holy See increased esp. contested Episcopal elections. Pope can directly intervene in the dioceses. If the electors were unable to agree, the Pope simply claims for himself the right of appointment on the basis of devolution (transfer).
5.     Penalties and depositions of abusive bishops
6.     After 11th cent, metropolitans have to go to Rome to obtain their staffs and after 12th century had to swear a special oath of obedience and appear in Rome periodically (every four years) for the visitatio liminum apostolorum (feet of the apostles).
7.     Desacralization of political element à sharper division between clerics and laymen
8.     The clergy (removed from the jurisdiction of princes and kings) gathered into a supranational corporation. Mendicant orders and the remaining clergy transcended national barriers.




[1] Initially, Sutri (1046) was ok for abbot Odillo of Cluny and Peter Damian but it was unacceptable to a cleansed Church.
[2] Pope of St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Bonaventure
[3] The Donation of Constantine (LatinDonatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperialdecree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Composed probably in the 8th century, it was used, especially in the 13th, in support of claims of political authority by the papacy. Italian Catholic priest and humanist Lorenzo Valla is credited with first exposing the forgery with solid philological arguments in 1439-1440, although the document's authenticity had already been repeatedly contested since 1001

[4] A Synod is an ecclesiastical event while a Concordat is both State and Church agreement which usually has friction.

No comments:

Post a Comment